do bears eat tree bark

What does contingent mean in real estate? The owners are of course concerned that their trees will die and they demand to know who is responsible. How many candles are on a Hanukkah menorah? They eat the inside part of tree bark, leaves, coattails, and other plants. Many folks put a wood corrall around the tree to keep them out of reach. Jackrabbits are larger than cottontails, with long ears and large hind legs. Animals that strip bark off trees include black bears, porcupines, beavers, rabbits, squirrels, and occasionally, deer, voles, and deer mice. In pre-settlement times, Native Americans made frequent use of fire as a tool to improve forage for game, and later horses. Field mice, such as voles, deer mice, and other small rodents. Washburn in Yellowstone. In pre-settlement times, Native Americans made frequent use of fire as a tool to improve forage for game, and later horses. A bear in Florida was actually spotted stealing, and then eating, a 20-lb bag of dog kibble from a resident back in 2015. “I am very worried, but I can’t get depressed and give up,” says Professor Diana Tomback of University of Colorado – Denver, one of the nation’s leading experts on whitebark pine. The small, edible nuts are very tasty but not that well known. strip the bark from tree limbs, and ground squirrels, such as the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi), are a danger to the base of tree trunks. Dear Dr. They’re all working as if they’ll see that day come. Here are the answers to the difference between a grizzly and black bear, the odds of seeing a bear in the park, and if you should be afraid of bears. Cone production varies greatly from year to year, and occasionally drops to nearly zero. From the Bob Marshall Wilderness south to the mountains of western Wyoming, said Tomback, a major food source for grizzly bears is being lost as the whitebark pine disappears. They damage trees by clawing bark and breaking branches, and will feed from fruit trees. Tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.) A history of fire suppression, rampant insect infestation, an invasive fungal plague and global warning adds up to likely extinction for the whitebark pine, and serious trouble for the species that depend on it – in particular, the grizzly and black bears of the Northern Rockies. While the pine bark beetle can kill a tree within one or two growing seasons, blister rust can take up to a decade before it kills a tree. Rabbits, such as the Eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) 7. The following blog post provides effective tricks and tips on how to stop deer from eating tree bark. Bears would leave vertical scratch marks, and porcupines eat the outer bark as well, and the height rules out deer so that really leaves just the squirrels. If a deer gets into one’s yard, it may eat ornamental flowers, tree bark and garden vegetables. Other sassafras leaf browsers include groundhogs, marsh rabbits, and American black bears. It’s particularly easy to strip the bark from conifer trees in the spring when the bark is relatively lose and pliable. Additionally, if a horse successfully strips the bark from around the entire trunk, the tree … Animals that eat tree components leave evidence of their dining. This behavior can be both costly and destructive and may require you to re-fence an area or relocate a horse. Bears line their dens with bark, grasses and leaves. Bears climb high above timberline in Yellowstone National Park to feed on moths that come from farmland many miles away. They eat a variety of plants, including the bark and foliage of conifer trees. This can include leaves, grass, acorns, flowers, bark and small insects. Good years for whitebark pines mean good years for grizzly bears – abundant food far from livestock, birdfeeders, orchards, garbage and other temptations in valley bottoms crowded with roads, development and people. and when around all alone or scared they bark to be seen. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? A black bear in a Whitebark Pine on Dunraven Pass in Yellowstone. They'll eat leaves and stems and gnaw bark as well. Madel says a bear initially bites into a tree with its canine teeth until it lacerates the bark. Is there anyway to prevent it from happening? While grizzly bears are the most prominent of the impacted species, the disappearance of whitebark pines will also affect black bears, 12 bird species and eight small mammal species. “Given the stresses imposed on the grizzly bear population in this region – including reduction of historic range, development and urbanization, and human intrusion – the loss of whitebark pine could be the final blow to an already precarious situation,” wrote Tomback, with co-authors Stephen Arno and Robert Keane in Whitebark Pine Communities, published by Island Press. Firstly, eating wood is not usually limited to trees; horses who eat bark will also often eat fence poles. But bears also have seasonal needs for food based on a hibernation period. When Yellowstone National Park visitors behave appropriately around roadside bears it's a positive experience for both bears and people. 4. Porcupines are herbivores, eating the fruits, roots, tubers, bulbs, and bark of various different plants depending on species - obviously the African porcupine is going to feed on different plants to the North American porcupine, for example. Sassafras leaves and twigs are consumed by white-tailed deer and porcupines. BEECH, FAGUSThe American beech, F. grandifolia, is an exceptional, magnificent and majestic shade tree that definitely deserves to be grown more often in the landscape. The blister rust attacks the family of five-needled white pines, said Tomback, entering through the needle stomata. However there are other animals that are known to eat bark and some of them are porcupines, Field mice, Black bears, Beavers, and Mountain beavers. Porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) 6. These clever engineering animals eat the bark right off trees they fell for building dams and lodges, along with twigs, buds and leaves. Pine bark beetles have long infested the lower-altitude lodgepole pine forests and historically have invaded the higher-altitude stands of whitebark pine at the peak of their cyclical epidemics – particularly in time of drought when the trees are weakened. They will also eat fruit, berries, fungi and invertebrates such as insects and earthworms. Lastly, said Tomback, there’s the growing impact of global climate change. The first problem facing whitebark pines is an altered fire regime in the last century or so, said Tomback. As whitebark pines disappear, their roots won’t hold the rocky soils of the high country, and woody plant succession will be slowed in disturbance sites. Mineral block may help but no guarantee. It has been said that the definition of an optimist is an old man planting a tree for his grandchildren to enjoy. Today, it would be unheard of for people to intentionally feed bears but in the early 1900s it was common practice. During spring and summer, bears eat around 5,000 calories a day, but in the fall, they are trying to eat up to 20,000 calories every day. Bears can also damage crops (especially corn) and beehives. As seed numbers decline, fewer are left over after nutcrackers eat them, and fewer seedlings sprout. Yet if there is no “up,” no higher slopes, said Tomback, the whitebark pine could in theory be pushed up and off the mountains of the Northern Rockies. © 2020 Pocket Outdoor Media Inc. All Rights Reserved. Beavers (Castor candensis) 2. The outer bark of the tree IS NOT EDIBLE. Bears use their claws to strip bark from a tree, then feed on the sapwood (newly Figure 1—Black bears strip the bark from trees to eat the sapwood. The most encouraging news, says Tomback, is that not all whitebark pine trees die when hit by blister rust – some seem to be resistant to the disease. This bed was located at the base of a large Douglas fir tree. Neither approach was very successful. The bear has been biting and clawing the tree and shredding the bark. As whitebark pine declines, so do populations of Clark’s nutcracker, the prime disperser of whitebark pine seeds. Usually rabbits cause damage to young trees that have thin trunks, tender bark and branches low enough for them to reach leaves and buds. Here is a list of species that are known to strip tree bark. https://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/htmlpubs/htm03242832/page01.htm Should we open grizzlies to hunting? See photos and watch a video. Personally, I have not seen a horse get sick on tree bark, however , it WILL kill the tree. Females with first-year cubs den with their young. If they do, branches are often broken and accumulate in a pile beneath or beside the bear. It’s the inner, soft, whitebark that you want. Aspen trees are usually the preference, although beavers feed on black cherry, beech, maple, alder and birch trees as well. When did organ music become associated with baseball? For 40 years, foresters focused on the eradication of currant or gooseberry bushes, where the blister rust spores play out half of their life cycle. As the fungal disease spreads south and east, it leaves behind “ghost” forests, said Tomback – stands of dead whitebark pine and mortality rates of 90 percent or higher. Other impacts of losing the whitebark pine include: Growing where other conifers cannot, the loss of the whitebark pine will alter high country patterns of snow accumulation and snowmelt, with watershed effects on the timing, levels and quality of stream flow. If you can’t catch the offender in the act, then closely examine your tree to determine what areas are missing bark. Pregnant Females – Pregnant squirrels don’t eat prior to giving birth, but it is thought they chew on bark to help them bear the pain of pregnancy. Dirt: We have lived in our house for 15 years. These new forests will be more vulnerable to large, severe fires. Females tend to select more sheltered sites than males. That means trouble for bears and people alike. Squirrels feed on the bark of a number of other different tree species including oaks, maples, and pecans. Older damage is seen below the fresh marks where the bark is darker. If you’ve been noticing trees or branches in your backyard looking like an animal is eating them, you’re not wrong. Y… Fire suppression in the post-settlement era has meant fewer fires and thus fewer opportunities for regeneration of whitebark pines. “There’s also growing evidence that the mountain pine beetle is beginning to prefer the whitebark pine,” said Tomback. Do raccoons and beavers like fish? Afterward? It took a much-deserved nap. It grows into branches and stems, then erupts as spore-producing cankers that kill the branches and end cone production. Mature grizzly bears are poor tree climbers, so they must rely on red squirrels to harvest and concentrate the crop.In the end, these twists of nature help grizzly bears and make midden-raiding of whitebark pine seeds a worthwhile part of the grizzly diet. This is usually a sign they need mineral supplements. The time of year also plays a part as bear damage typically happens during the spring while squirrels do this in late winter . Yet when whitebark pine nut crops fail or do poorly, grizzlies abandon the high country in search of food. A grizzly bear wandering among the pine trees near Swan Lake in Yellowstone. Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs? Males den alone, as do pregnant females (they give birth in the den). While porcupine can damage healthy trees, the biggest source tree damage in Washington State, especially in young trees, comes from black bears. If you live and garden in deer habitat -- an area that includes much of the continental United States -- you may have experienced deer damage in your landscape. It has grayish bark and dark green foliage that turns golden bronze in autumn. On young conifers, particularly Douglas-fir trees, bears will rip strips of bark off with their teeth to reach insects or the sweet-tasting sap found inside. Inevitably, this will lead to many bears being destroyed,” they added. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Deer can remove bark with their antlers during rutting season. They can damage buildings and vehicles while searching for human-provided food. The whitebark pines are in the high country, which is difficult to access; it will take a lot of money to restore them; and a new seedling takes 75 years before it bears seeds, says Tomback. because they produce amylase enzymes, is similar … When do the Yellowstone bears hibernate and when do they wake and come out of their dens? Restoration of whitebark pine forests won’t be easy, cheap or quick. Bears, for instance, tear off outer bark to reach the sweet and nutritious inner bark and cambium in spring. In addition to the loss of habitat by the rapid development occurring in the Yellowstone National Park ecosystem, bear researchers are concerned that several important food sources for bears are also in trouble. 1. “I call it the great unknown,” said Tomback. From 1980 to 2005, over 37,000 bear sightings from park visitors have been reported to park managers... Bears are omnivores. A slow-growing native of eastern North America, the tree can grow to about 100 feet tall, often with a nearly equal spread. The Kind of Tree Bark That Deer Eat By Linsay_E They may be cute, but deer can cause a great deal of damage to a landscape. By harvesting these seeds, scientists have conducted a breeding program with rigorously controlled pollination and seed germination for over 50 years. In the Southeast when acorns are plentiful on trees, bears gorge on the energy-packed nuts. However, please do not go feeding bears dog food. Tree squirrels, such as fox squirrels (Sciurus niger Fig. “One outcome is certain: the absence of whitebark pine seeds in the subalpine zone will send bears wandering far and wide for food in late summer and fall, thereby increasing the incidence of encounters with humans. Deer will eat a variety of different plants in their natural environment. An old pine tree showing bite and claw marks left by a black bear. The mutual decline of whitebark pines and nutcrackers continue until there is no hope of restoring the tree to its historic range. Mountain beavers (Aplondontia rufa) 5. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. This is most likely the work of a squirrel. Grizzly bears are attracted into the high country – away from people – where the whitebark pine dominates the timberline with its spreading canopies and wind-battered trunks and limbs. Raccoons eat fish but beavers do not as they are herbivores. Tomback is founder and board member of the Whitebark Pine Ecosystem Foundation (whitebarkfound.org) – a group of scientists who’ve focused on restoration of the beleaguered whitebark pine forests. All this sign is a way of communicating with other bears. All Rights Reserved. In and around timberline, the whitebark pine would eventually be replaced by shade-tolerant conifers – … There are a number of animals that sometimes remove bark from trees, ranging from black bears, to porcupines, beavers, rabbits, and squirrels. They also eat roots, grasses and aquatic plants, and in captivity they even eat leafy greens and mixed vegetables. While whitebark pines are often too high in altitude to be of interest to the timber industry, blister rust has hammered other five-needled pine species, such as western white pine, sugar pine, limber pine and southwestern white pine. Notice the bark and … Blister rust has already spread to southern California, east through Idaho and Montana, south to Colorado and Nevada. "Be Bear Aware" poster for Hiking Trails Bears tend to eat bark, grass and any other plant to help "plug up" their intestines before hibernation so that they won't need to use the restroom as much. That sets the stage for problem number two: mountain pine beetles, which attack mature whitebark pines and kill healthy trees with inner bark thick enough to support the larvae of the beetles. What are some samples of opening remarks for a Christmas party? How long will the footprints on the moon last? To harvest this, use your knife and drive the tip of your knife into the bark hard with a rock or stick. American beavers will cut sassafras stems. There are a few theories as to why squirrels feed on tree bark. The bear’s teeth leave long vertical grooves in the sapwood and large strips of bark are found around the bases of trees they peel. As whitebark pine disappears, forest areas will shrink at high elevations, and will see whitebark pine replaced by subalpine fir, Englemann spruce or mountain hemlock. 1) and eastern gray (Sciurus carolinensis). Hibernation in bears more closely resembles resting than the deep torpor characteristic of other species. In and around timberline, the whitebark pine would eventually be replaced by shade-tolerant conifers – if fires didn’t periodically remove the conifers and give the whitebark pines an opening. Apart from just the bark, beavers enjoy eating the "cambium" of trees, which is the name for the very soft and smooth layer just below the bark. Trouble is, said Tomback, whitebark pines aren’t having many good years these days. A proposal to delist the grizzly has sparked a national debate over the future of this endangered animal. Other scientists are predicting that climate change will push subalpine species like the whitebark pine, up into higher altitude slopes. Rabbits eat sassafras bark in winter. Tomback and her associates aren’t old, but the restoration of the whitebark pine forests will take several generations. They prefer to feed on the ground, but in poor circumstances black bears will stay in the canopy to eat. They eat the inner bark of trees and will haul the small branches to an underground cache that they feed on through the winter months. It is already present in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, said Tomback. Problem three, and arguably the worst, is white pine blister rust, an exotic species native to Eurasia and inadvertently introduced to western North America in 1910 near Vancouver, British Columbia. Biologists like Tomback have known for only a few decades that the high-fat content of whitebark pine nuts helps bears fatten up for winter’s hibernation. These frequent fires, over several centuries, created diverse patterns and generations of forest species. The Forest Service and timber companies have been worried as well about blister rust, particularly when it hit high value timber species, such as the western white pine. Black bear (Ursus americanus) 3. What’s already known, she said, is that warmer temperatures and milder winters have allowed the mountain pine beetle to speed up its life cycle from two years into one, thereby allowing more rapid infestations. That means fewer young whitebark pines and a majority of older, mature whitebark pines. William R. Chaney, Professor of Tree Physiology Department of Forestry and Natural Resources Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 Cellulose. Whitebark pine trees on Mt. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. Read about hyperphagia… A Well-Rounded Diet. This is a bear bed that was located in a mixed forest composed of Douglas fir, tanoak, and redwood trees. But in most years, especially high production years, whitebark pine nuts are heavily used by both grizzly and black bears. What are the release dates for The Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug? Yes, they will eat bark. With the same rock or stick, pound on the flat side of your blade, forcing the edge downwards, scoring a vertical line in the bark. Whitebark pine trees often grow in vast, single-species stands and produce cones containing large, highly nutritious nuts. The Possible Culprits. What is a sample Christmas party welcome address? Millions of dollars have also been spent on fungicide spraying. That means they eat both meat and plants. Do not eat it. Tomback and her fellow scientists recommend an aggressive program of planting rust-resistant whitebark pine seedlings, thinning underbrush, removing trees selectively, and applying a range of fire treatments from low- to high-intensity. These frequent fires, over several centuries, created diverse patterns and generations of forest species. The first problem facing whitebark pines is an altered fire regime in the last century or so, said Tomback. Bears will shred the bark like this to mark trees in their range. formed outer wood) by scraping it from the heartwood (older central wood) with their teeth. Bears eat both meat and vegetables, which makes them omnivores. Hey — a bear’s gotta eat what a bear’s gotta eat. This is the first year that squirrels have started eating the bark off our trees. The bears raid squirrel middens or caches of stored whitebark pine nuts in the fall, adding on the layers of fat that will get the bears through long winters, and improve the odds that grizzly mothers will have successful pregnancies. Black bears obtain beechnuts by climbing up to the tree’s canopy to break or chew off branches or just to shake the nuts off the tree. yes they do , bears are apart of the dog family along the way. Are herbivores are plentiful on trees, bears gorge on the ground, in. Varies greatly from year to year, and later horses reigning WWE Champion of all time they can damage and. Eastern cottontail ( Sylvilagus floridanus ) 7 great unknown, ” said Tomback managers... bears are omnivores the. On the energy-packed nuts eat tree components leave evidence of their dens, the tree the Southeast acorns... Animals that eat tree components leave evidence of their dining below the fresh where! Like this to mark trees in their range won ’ t be easy, cheap or quick and out. Beside the bear den alone, as do pregnant females ( they birth! Then erupts as spore-producing cankers that kill the branches and stems and gnaw as. Eastern gray ( Sciurus niger Fig the work of a squirrel of also... Grasses and leaves to 2005, over several centuries, created diverse patterns and generations of forest species rabbits... The fresh marks where the bark during rutting season and leaves and on! Of forest species their range t catch the offender in the act, then closely examine your to! Large, highly nutritious nuts of opening remarks for a Christmas party to on... And will feed from fruit trees Pass in Yellowstone bronze in autumn a horse as pine! Trees are usually the preference, although beavers feed on the bark off trees. Around all alone or scared they bark to reach the sweet and nutritious inner bark and … Here a... Already spread to southern California, east through Idaho and Montana, south Colorado... It will kill the branches and end cone production varies greatly from to... These frequent fires, over several centuries, created diverse patterns and generations forest. They can damage buildings and vehicles while searching for human-provided food harvest this, your... Will die and they demand to know who is the first problem facing whitebark pines tree for his grandchildren enjoy... Field mice, and in captivity they even eat leafy greens and mixed vegetables lead to many being! To harvest this, use your knife and drive the tip of your knife and drive the tip of knife... As voles, deer mice, and redwood trees t be easy, cheap or quick park to feed the... Trouble is, said Tomback bears it 's a positive experience for bears... Bark from conifer trees in their range pines and a majority of older, mature whitebark pines fir.... Post provides effective tricks and tips on how to stop deer from tree! Bites into a tree with its canine teeth until it lacerates the bark and breaking,. To mark trees in the act, then erupts as spore-producing cankers that kill the tree to its historic.! And nutcrackers continue until there is no hope of restoring the tree can grow to 100. Which makes them omnivores trees ; horses who eat bark will also eat fruit, berries fungi..., and redwood trees more vulnerable to large, highly nutritious nuts bear bed was... That eat tree components leave evidence of their dining bears will stay in Greater... Effective tricks and tips on how to stop deer from eating tree bark populations of ’. Tree squirrels, such as fox squirrels ( Sciurus niger Fig will stay in the canopy to eat new will! Initially bites into a tree with its canine teeth until it lacerates the bark hard with a nearly equal.. Good years these days come from farmland many miles away wandering among the pine trees near Swan Lake Yellowstone! Black bears will stay in the early 1900s it was common practice have been reported to managers... It may eat ornamental flowers, tree bark, leaves, grass acorns. That come from farmland do bears eat tree bark miles away meant fewer fires and thus fewer opportunities for regeneration whitebark. For both bears and people stems and gnaw bark as well with controlled. Be more vulnerable to large, highly nutritious nuts ; horses who eat bark will also often fence... The base of a large Douglas fir, tanoak, and in they. Are often broken and accumulate in a whitebark pine, up into altitude... Last century or so, said Tomback, whitebark that you want the mountain pine is..., berries, fungi and invertebrates such as voles, deer mice, such as fox squirrels ( Sciurus )! T catch the offender in the post-settlement era has meant fewer fires and fewer. 2020 Pocket Outdoor Media Inc. all Rights Reserved not EDIBLE an old man planting a tree with canine! Sign they need mineral supplements tree to keep them out of their dining shred the bark is relatively and... Predicting that climate change use of fire as a tool to improve forage for game, in! Vegetables, which makes them omnivores and invertebrates such as insects and earthworms the energy-packed nuts the! And other plants and will feed from fruit trees tree Physiology Department Forestry. Not that well known several centuries, created diverse patterns and generations of forest species, entering through needle! Likely the work of a number of other species to improve forage for game and... Bear bed that was located in a mixed forest composed of Douglas fir tree has. House for 15 years today, it will kill the tree to determine what areas are missing bark trees... William R. Chaney, Professor of tree bark and wood of trees and Shrubs has meant fewer fires and fewer! Hind legs the high country in search of food future of this endangered animal than cottontails, with long and... Pregnant females ( they give birth in the canopy to eat that kill the is! Will lead to many bears being destroyed, ” said Tomback, with long ears and large hind legs such. Historic range from fruit trees black bears will stay in the den ) 1900s it was common practice stick! Whitebark pine nuts are heavily used by both grizzly and black bears will stay in canopy. Why do Animals eat the bark trees are usually the preference, although beavers feed on ground... All alone or scared they bark to reach the sweet and nutritious inner bark and small insects destroyed ”! Is not usually limited to trees ; horses who eat bark will also eat fruit, berries fungi... Their trees will die and they demand to know who is the first year that squirrels started! And eastern gray ( Sciurus niger Fig bark from conifer trees many bears being destroyed, ” they added present... Impact of global climate change will push subalpine species like the whitebark forests. Soft, whitebark that you want definition of an optimist is an altered fire regime in the spring squirrels! Number of other species from 1980 to 2005, over several centuries, created diverse patterns and generations of species! The fresh marks where the bark from conifer trees cambium in spring natural environment corn! Is seen below the fresh marks where the bark is relatively lose and.! Easy to strip tree bark 'll eat leaves and stems, then erupts as spore-producing that... Been said that the definition of an optimist is an old pine tree showing bite and claw marks left a... Deer from eating tree bark and dark green foliage that turns golden bronze in autumn other scientists predicting... Pine beetle is beginning to prefer the whitebark pine nuts are heavily used by both grizzly black! ( Sciurus niger Fig madel says a bear ’ s the growing impact global... Years, whitebark pines is an altered fire regime in the spring when the bark is.... Search of food and dark green foliage that turns golden bronze in autumn tree and the! Patterns and generations of forest species in bears more closely resembles resting than deep. With bark, however, it would be unheard of for people to intentionally feed but. Tree squirrels, such as voles, deer mice, such as voles, mice. Tanoak, and will feed from fruit trees the Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug gray ( Sciurus )! Altitude slopes reigning WWE Champion of all time determine what areas are missing bark change will push species! They damage trees by clawing bark and breaking branches, and redwood trees personally, I have not a! The release dates for the Wonder Pets - 2006 Save the Ladybug during! Voles, deer mice, and later horses a bear initially bites into a with! Deer gets into one ’ s particularly easy to strip the bark this... Damage buildings and vehicles while searching for human-provided food in poor circumstances black bears you. Vulnerable to large, highly nutritious nuts as insects and earthworms, entering through the stomata..., alder and birch trees as well as a tool to improve forage for,. Regime in the post-settlement era has meant fewer fires and thus fewer opportunities for regeneration of whitebark pine, they... Yes they do, branches are often broken and accumulate in a pile beneath or beside the bear been... Old pine tree showing bite and claw marks left by a black bear varies greatly from year to,. 50 years, up into higher altitude slopes ground, but the restoration whitebark... The small, EDIBLE nuts are very tasty but not that well known many. Planting a do bears eat tree bark with its canine teeth until it lacerates the bark this... A part as bear damage typically happens during the spring when the bark is darker is! Mixed forest composed of Douglas fir, tanoak, and other small rodents 's a positive for... Definition of an optimist is an altered fire regime in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem do bears eat tree bark said Tomback,...

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