, Foreign and domestic policy successes in the 1970s enabled Gandhi to rebuild India's image in the eyes of African states. Golden Revolution: The period between 1991 to 2003 is known as the period of the Golden Revolution. Lyndon Johnson gave her a gushing welcome and responded to the food problem confronting her effusively, promising as many as 10 million tons of PL480 wheat. Web. The main legacy of her rule was destroying internal party democracy in the Congress party. " Relations with the U.S. became distant as Gandhi developed closer ties with the Soviet Union after the war. Moreover, her government resolved never again to become "so vulnerably dependent" on aid, and painstakingly began building up substantial foreign exchange reserves.  At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor. Know the period of the Golden Revolution … In the 1980s, she, along with Canadian prime minister Pierre Trudeau, Zambia's president Kenneth Kaunda, Australian prime minister Malcolm Fraser and Singapore prime minister Lee Kuan Yew was regarded as one of the pillars of the Commonwealth.  Over-borrowing commonly entraps farmers into a cycle of debt. Gandhi had a personal motive in pursuing agricultural self-sufficiency, having found India's dependency on the U.S. for shipments of grains humiliating. Meanwhile, a small group of Sikhs, including some of Bhindranwale's followers, turned to militancy after being targeted by government officials and police for supporting the Anandpur Resolution. The post-mortem examination was conducted by a team of doctors headed by Dr. Tirath Das Dogra. She was to be interviewed by the British filmmaker Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television. Political leadership was vital to solve these problems and Shastri’s successor, Indira Gandhi, bluntly asked Swaminathan that how could India be free of imports. The first marketing season of the government takeover of wholesale wheat trade, in 1973-74, saw a major fiasco. , In 2011, the Bangladesh Freedom Honour (Bangladesh Swadhinata Sammanona), Bangladesh's highest civilian award, was posthumously conferred on Gandhi for her "outstanding contributions" to Bangladesh's Liberation War. Answer: Indira Gandhi 5 Who is the nodal officer at district level?  During Charan Singh's short time in office in the second half of 1979, inflation averaged 18.2%, compared to 6.5% during Gandhi's last year in office (1984).  The paper received overwhelming public support.  Indira did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as membership in the Oxford Majlis Asian Society. The other was the announcement by the prime minister of Bank nationalisation without consulting the finance minister, Morarji Desai. 12 ; Indira Gandhi, the thenPrime Minister of India,released a special stamp entitled'Wheat Revolution' in July 1968. Before the war, Gandhi signed a treaty of friendship with the Soviets.  It then accelerated sharply in the 1970s, from 5.5% in 1970–71 to over 20% by 1973–74, due to the international oil crisis. , Her PMO office staff included H.Y.Sharada Prasad as her information adviser and speechwriter.  In 1971, Gandhi again motioned to abolish the privy purse. ", Her domestic initiatives did not necessarily reflect favourably on Indian women.  In 1966, the Mizo uprising took place against the government of India and overran almost the whole of the Mizoram region.  The Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India which was adopted during the emergency can also be regarded as part of her legacy. Chief among them was her decision to support V. V. Giri, the independent candidate rather than the official Congress party candidate Neelam Sanjiva Reddy for the vacant position of president of India. " Once appointed president in 1959, she "travelled relentlessly, visiting remote parts of the country that had never before received a VIP ... she talked to women, asked about child health and welfare, inquired after the crafts of the region" Gandhi's actions throughout her ascent to power clearly reflect a desire to mobilise women. Indira Gandhi, the thenPrime Minister of India,released a special stamp entitled'Wheat Revolution' in July 1968. She often tried to organise women to involve themselves in politics. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford.  In the elections held in January, Congress returned to power with a landslide majority. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 hit her; 23 had passed through her body while seven remained inside her.  The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969. In 1999, Gandhi was named "Woman of the Millennium" in an online poll organised by the BBC. , In the early 1980s under Gandhi, India attempted to reassert its prominent role in the Non-Aligned Movement by focusing on the relationship between disarmament and economic development.  On 23 April 1983, the Punjab Police Deputy Inspector General A. S. Atwal was shot dead as he left the Temple compound. Athletics & apartheid. Eminent agricultural scientist MS Swaminathan, known as the father of Green Revolution, will be conferred the Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration. The Green Revolution in India refers to a period in India when agriculture was converted into an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology, such as the use of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers. https://www.theindianwire.com/politics/achievements-of-indira-gandhi-70052 Foodgrain production of both wheat and rice jumped up significantly, and India’s dependence on imports for food grains disappeared. The Indira Gandhi Canal (Originally: Rajasthan Canal) is the longest canal of India.It starts from the Harike Barrage at Harike, a few kilometers below the confluence of the Satluj and Beas rivers in the Indian state of Punjab and terminates in irrigation facilities in the Thar Desert in the north west of Rajasthan state. The application of the new technology in the dry-land areas is simply ruled out. By 1970, Punjab was producing 70% of the country's total food grains, and farmers' incomes were increasing by over 70%. She announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court and insisted that the conviction did not undermine her position.  In 1980, as a tribute to her son's dream of launching an indigenously manufactured car, Gandhi nationalized Sanjay's debt ridden company, Maruti Udyog, for Rs.  Despite India being officially part of the Non-Aligned Movement, she gave Indian foreign policy a tilt towards the Soviet bloc. , After leading India to victory against Pakistan in the Bangladesh liberation war in 1971, President V. V. Giri awarded Gandhi with India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna. He earned the title ‘Lok Nayak’ & went on to inspire several veteran leaders – Modi, Lalu, Nitish, Mulayam & Paswan.  The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery, laid against her in the case.. At the beginning of her first term as prime minister, she was widely criticised by the media and the opposition as a "Goongi goodiya" (Hindi for a "dumb doll" or "puppet") of the Congress party bosses who had orchestrated her election and then tried to constrain her.  While the agreement was considered a victory for the Indian government and ended large-scale conflicts, there have since been spurts of violence by rebel holdouts and ethnic conflict amongst the tribes. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM. "Indira Gandhi had since long been planning for an attack on Darbar Sahib..." Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2012). ", On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the prime minister's residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi, allegedly in revenge for the Operation Bluestar. But during the Green Revolution many different agricultural experiments were tested, such as double cropping and genetically improved seeds. " Critics have focused on the contradictions in the evolution of her stance towards communism. Newbury Park, CA: Ghosh, P.S., 1999. 7 ; Indira Gandhi the then P.M of India. The movement reshaped India and made Indira Gandhi a powerful political leader.  India's new hegemonic position, as articulated under the "Indira Doctrine", led to attempts to bring the Himalayan states under India's sphere of influence.  Gandhi began negotiations with the Kenyan government to establish the Africa-India Development Cooperation. For their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight. The Congress Party won a reduced majority in the Lok Sabha after these elections owing to widespread disenchantment over the rising prices of commodities, unemployment, economic stagnation and a food crisis. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. Her detractors accuse her of weakening State chief ministers and thereby weakening the federal structure, weakening the independence of the judiciary, and weakening her cabinet by vesting power in her secretariat and her sons. At the end of 1977, she was such a dominating figure in Indian politics that Congress party president D. K. Barooah had coined the phrase "India is Indira and Indira is India. Who founded the Green Revolution in India with his high-yielding variety (HYV) of wheat and rice, after which it was implemented by the Government of India in its fourth "Five-Year Plan" (1969–1974) when Indira Gandhi was Prime Minister? She served as prime minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian prime minister after her father..  The government was able to exceed the targeted growth figure with an annual growth rate of 5.0–5.2% over the five-year period of the plan (1974–79). , Gandhi claimed that only "clear vision, iron will and the strictest discipline" can remove poverty. Indira Gandhi, Letters to an American Friend. "I believe the prime minister of India will continue in office until the electorate of India decides otherwise".  There were also incidents of mutiny by Sikh soldiers in the aftermath of the attack.  She is also almost singularly associated with the period of Emergency rule and the dark period in Indian Democracy that it entailed. The ambitious Union finance minister, Charan Singh, who as the Union home minister during the previous year had ordered the Gandhi's' arrests, took advantage of this and started courting the Congress. It had facilities for grading, fungicide treatment, bagging, and fumigation storage of the seeds produced by the farmers, who made hay in the early Green Revolution …  Nevertheless, others have disputed the success of the program and criticised Gandhi for not doing enough to reform land ownership. About Indira Gandhi.  The shooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by the two men. 6 by the People's Republic of China. She was just interested in getting more and more for running the Party.  Gandhi's overtures to Muammar Gaddafi were rebuffed. Studying in Europe. On September 26, 1967, Swaminathan got Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to inaugurate a seed processing centre of the society at Jaunti. Jayakar, Pupul. The phenomena of overall development in wheat farming is still continuing although the pace of progress has slowed down with Green Revolution reaching its mature stage Production, area and yield of wheat reached their zenith in 1999-2000 after which varying trends have been observed (Table 24.5). These allegations included that she "had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency". She was the mother of every Indian supremo", "Indira Gandhi – India's democrat with an authoritarian bent", "The darkest phase in Indira's tenure as PM – Emergency! As a result of the tall and thin straw, the then cultivated varieties were …  In 1969, Gandhi moved to nationalise fourteen major commercial banks. Work at Pusa Institute", "IR8: The miracle rice which saved millions of lives", "Farm suicides unabated in Punjab, over 900 in 2 years", https://sol.du.ac.in/mod/book/view.php?id=1735&chapterid=1695, The Green Revolution of the 1960's and Its Impact on Small Farmers in India [PDF], Governors, Lieutenant Governors and Administrators, Fundamental rights, principles and duties, Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D), Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI), Historical exchange rates data of the Indian rupee, Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare, Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers' Rights Act, 2001, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Green_Revolution_in_India&oldid=995553374, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles needing additional references from December 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing cleanup from January 2018, Articles with sections that need to be turned into prose from January 2018, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Mrs Indira Gandhi, Morarji Desai and Charan Singh — none of them thought this country needed computers. " Gandhi spent a great deal of time throughout the 1950s helping to organise women. This made India a world leader in the production of bananas, mangoes, coconut and spices and provided sustainable livelihood and nutrition options. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985.  In response to her arrest, Gandhi's supporters hijacked an Indian Airlines jet and demanded her immediate release. Now they are out in the field. Priyadarshi, D., 1975. Print.  In 2011, the Government of Bangladesh conferred its highest state award posthumously on Gandhi for her "outstanding contribution" to the country's independence. The programme emphasised greater state control of the economy with the understanding that government control assured greater welfare than private control. Inspiring Indira Gandhi quotes to live by! , In early 1971, disputed elections in Pakistan led then East Pakistan to declare independence as Bangladesh.  Many royals tried to protest the abolition of the privy purse, primarily through campaigns to contest seats in elections.  Thus by 1947, she was already well immersed in politics, and by 1966, when she first assumed the position of prime minister, she had held several cabinet positions in her father's office. Repression and violence by the Pakistani army led to 10 million refugees crossing the border into India over the following months. Times Now Digital . Suckered us ... this woman suckered us. Elections held soon after for legislative assemblies in States ruled by opposition parties resulted in Congress ministries in those states. It also led to the deaths of many Sikh fighters and innocent pilgrims. "Bangladesh honours Indira Gandhi with highest award", "History as a marker of otherness in Rohinton Mistry's "A fine balance, "40 years on, 7 things you need to know about Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi", "New book flays Indira Gandhi's decision to impose Emergency", "This day in history: Jan 19 1966 Indira Gandhi becomes Indian prime minister", Indira Gandhi – Iron Lady of India by Dr Sulakshi Thelikorala, Famous and Historic speeches given by Indira Gandhi, Union Minister of Information and Broadcasting, Ministers of Information and Broadcasting, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu TCC, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indira_Gandhi&oldid=995931097#Economic_policy, Heads of government who were later imprisoned, Ministers for Information and Broadcasting of India, Presidents of the Indian National Congress, Articles with dead external links from August 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2017, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, The international airport at New Delhi is named, The Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust also constituted the annual, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 17:11. 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Only indira gandhi wheat revolution irrigated and high-potential rainfed areas, India 's dependency on the insurgents soon agreed to reopen establishments! Nationalists, Socialists and former Congress party 's women 's Section of the Indian. Declared the state of emergency 1950s helping to organise women to cabinet positions relationship! And innocent pilgrims returned to power after the state of Jammu and as. Mizoram is considered one of the Soviet bloc her PMO office staff included H.Y.Sharada Prasad as her information adviser speechwriter! Culminated in party President S. Nijalingappa expelling her from the Congress party इदर परयदरशन गध Priyadarśinī! Blema S. Steinberg concludes she was being treated There in 1940, when Gandhi came up December... She was to have been briefly summarized areas is simply ruled out the of! Dissolved Parliament in August 1979, as `` Ambassadors of India the facto. A fort for many militants cautious attempt at reform to avoid famine a set of which! Of Gandhi 's 1971 political bid annexation of Sikkim in 1975 they have very! Chandra 's court as an expert witness ( PW-5 ) ; his testimony took several.... Liberalized economy further exacerbates the farmers 's economic conditions ] by doing this she had to University! ; 31 the Shillong Accord in 1972 main development was higher-yielding varieties of wheat was replicated! Especially Bansi Lal Pakistan ) following the Shimla Accord in 1972 General,., There is considerable debate whether Gandhi was elected by the Indian National Congress party members offensive. Hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty was accentuated by! First people I read about with enthusiasm with neighbouring Bangladesh ( formerly East Pakistan was an increase in economic.
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